Birth
of
Pentecostalism
in
America

 
The Pentecostal movement traces its founding to the tongues speakingâ that broke out at Charles Parham's Bible School in Topeka, Kansas in 1901 and at the Azusa Street Mission in Los Angeles in 1906.

The stage was set by the late 19th century for Pentecostalism to be birthed. The holiness movement had produced a frenzy of spiritual excitement and a lusting after second blessings and second baptisms. Men such as John Dowie and Frank Sandford had set the stage with their emphasis on divine healing and the expectation of an end-times miracle revival and the reestablishment of apostolic sign gifts, including tongues speaking.

CHARLES PARHAM

By any reckoning Charles Parham (1873-1929) is a key figure in the birth of Pentecostalism. He was ordained as a Methodist, but left the organization after a falling out with his ecclesiastical superiors (Larry Martin, The Topeka Outpouring of 1901, p. 14). In a restless search for religious instruction he visited the ministries of a number of strange holiness, faith-healing, and latter rain teachers, picking up various heresies along the way, which he eventually merged together into his Pentecostal theology.

Prior to the turn of the century, Parham observed the meetings of Benjamin Irwin, founder of the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, and was deeply influenced by Irwin's third blessing doctrine (the blessing of salvation, the blessing of power, and the blessing of sinless perfection). As we have seen, Irwin taught that it was necessary for the Christian to seek the baptism of fire for power and perfection. Pentecostal historian Vinson Synan admits this connection:

THE FIRE-BAPTIZED HOLINESS CHURCH SERVED AS AN IMPORTANT LINK IN THE CHAIN THAT LATER PRODUCED THE MODERN PENTECOSTAL MOVEMENT. By teaching that the baptism of the Holy Ghost was an experience separate from and subsequent to sanctification, it laid the basic doctrinal premise of the later movement. It is probable that Charles F. Parham, the man who initiated the Pentecostal revival in Topeka, Kansas, in 1901, received from Irwin the basic idea of a separate baptism of the Holy Ghost following sanctification. Indeed, for a time in 1899, Parham promoted the baptism of fire in his Apostolic Faith magazineâ (Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, p. 59).

Parham adopted the heresy of annihilation from his Quaker grandfather-in-law, David Baker, denying the eternal punishment of the wicked and believing, rather, that that the unsaved would be annihilated in hell.

In 1898 Parham came under the influence of the aforementioned Frank Sandford, and in 1900 Parham traveled to Chicago to study the ministry of John Dowie and to examine Zion City.

Like Sandford and Dowie, Charles Parham taught that physical healing is the Christian's birthright and he railed against the use of medicine and doctors. He taught that it was always God's will to heal sicknesses. In the Sept. 13, 1899, issue of his Apostolic Faith magazine, Parham replied to the question of whether the Bible forbids the use of medicine by exclaiming, We say yes, most emphatically YES (emphasis his).

An issue of Christian History magazine (Issue 58, Vol. XVII, No. 2, 1998) contains a photo of Parham and seven of his followers standing on the steps of the Carthage, Missouri, courthouse. The year was 1906 and Parham is holding a flagpole with banners reading Apostolic Unity. The others are holding banners proclaiming Truth, Faith, Life, Victory, HEALTH.â They were making a statement of their doctrinal position that health is a guaranteed part of the Christian life.

Parham was the first Pentecostal preacher to pray over handkerchiefs and mail them to those who desired his ministrations (James Goff Jr., Fields White Unto Harvest, p. 104).

In spite of his teaching that it was always God's will to heal and that medicine and doctors must be shunned, one of Parham's sons died at age 1 of a sickness that was not healed. He died, in fact, two months after the outbreak of tongues at Parham's Bethel Bible School in Topeka. Another son died at age 37. Most of those who attended Parham's meetings were not healed. In October 1904 a nine-year-old girl named Nettie Smith died. Her father was an avid follower of Parham and refused medical treatment for his daughter. The little girl's death turned local public opinion against Parham because her sickness was treatable and the community considered her death unnecessary. Parham himself suffered various sicknesses throughout his life and at times was too sick to preach or travel. For example, he spent the entire winter of 1904-05 sick and bedridden (James Goff Jr., Fields White Unto Harvest, p. 94), in spite of his own doctrine that healing is guaranteed in Christ's atonement.

In the March 22, 1899, issue of the Apostolic Faith magazine Parham listed his beliefs: salvation by faith; healing by faith, laying on of hands, and prayer; sanctification by faith; coming (pre-millennium) of Christ; the baptism of Holy Ghost and Fire, which seals the Bride and bestows the gifts.

Thus we see the combination of the various doctrines he had gathered in his travels. He also believed in the annihilation of the unsaved and taught that there were two separate creations, and that Adam and Eve were of a different race than people who allegedly lived outside of the Garden of Eden. The first race of men did not have souls, he claimed, and this race of unsouled people was destroyed in the flood. Parham believed that only those who received the latter days Spirit baptism and spoke in tongues would make up the bride of Christ and would be sealed for the Marriage Supper of the Lamb and that these would have a special place of authority at Christ's return. He believed in a partial rapture composed of tongues speakers. From John Dowie, Parham adopted the heresy that Anglo-Saxons are Israelites. He associated often with the Ku Klux Klan and believed that interracial marriages caused the flood of Noah (Martin, The Topeka Outpouring of 1901, p. 19). He did not believe that black people could be sealed as part of the bride of Christ.

After his visits with Dowie and Sandford, Parham established the BETHEL BIBLE SCHOOL IN TOPEKA, KANSAS. It was patterned after Sandford's ministry and was opened in October 1900 in a 30-room building called Stone's Folly. It was so named because the owner, whose name was Stone, was unable to complete the building before going bankrupt. Parham was convinced that Christ's return would be preceded by a latter rain outpouring of signs and wonders and he believed that tongues was the evidence of the baptism of the Holy Spirit. He further believed that the tongues would be real earthly languages that would enable missionaries to preach the gospel to the ends of the earth without having to learn foreign languages. According to Parham's teaching, those who received the latter rain baptism and tongues would form the bride of Christ and would rule with Him at His coming.

Parham urged his students to seek this experience, and in this context he laid hands on one of his Bible school students, AGNES OZMAN, on January 1, 1901, and she allegedly began to speak in Chinese and later in Bohemian. She spoke while in a trance (Topeka State Journal, Jan. 9, 1901). Subsequently, Parham and others at the small Bible school allegedly also began to speak in tongues. They even claimed that cloven tongues of fire appeared over the heads of the tongues speakers.

Parham said that language professors and other linguistically educated people confirmed that the tongues the students were speaking were languages, but this has never been confirmed. Newspaper reporters of the day described the phenomenon merely as âœgibberish.

The only actual record we have of one of the tongues spoken by Parham's students was written by a reporter of the Topeka State Journal:

Mr. Parham called Miss Lilian Thistlethrate [Thistlethwaite] into the room and asked her if she could talk some. She at first answered that the Lord had not inspired her to say anything but soon began to utter strange words which sounded like this: âEuossa, Euossa, use rela sema calah mala kanah leulla ssage nalan. Ligle logle lazie logle. Ene mine mo, sah rah el me sah rah me. These sentences were translated as meaning, Jesus is mighty to save, Jesus is ready to hear, and God is love (Hindoo and Zulu Both Are Represented at Bethel School, Topeka State Journal, Jan. 9, 1901).

Ligle logle lazie logle!!!!! Ene mine mo!!!!! This is exactly the type of tongues I have heard dozens of times at Pentecostal and Charismatic meetings in various parts of the world, but it is childish nonsense.

In 1914 Charles Shumway diligently sought evidence to prove that early Pentecostal tongues were real languages, but he failed to find even one person to corroborate the claims that had been made (James Goff, Jr., Fields White Unto Harvest, Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1988, p. 76). In his 1919 Ph.D. dissertation, Shumway censured the local Houston Chronicle for credulous reporting and stated that letters are on hand from several men who were government interpreters in or near Houston at the time [when Parham conducted a Bible school there], and they are unanimous in denying all knowledge of the alleged facts (Goff, p. 98).

After examining the tongues spoken at the Azusa Street mission led by William Seymour, Holiness leader W.B. Godbey concluded that they were not languages (G.F. Taylor, The Spirit and the Bride, Falcon, NC: by the author, 1907, p. 52).

The Rocky Mountain Pillar of Fire (a holiness publication) for September 12 and November 14, 1906 contained the following accounts:

This Hindu can talk in six different languages and says he has never heard any of them at the Tongue meeting. One of the languages he can talk is Arabian and some of the people at those meetings claim to talk that language, but he said it sounded like a lot of turkey gobblers (Sept. 12, 1906).

A gentleman, who has for years been at the head of a missionary work in India, has just been to Los Angeles with the view of securing some missionaries for his field who profess to have the gift of tongues. He came back stating he could find no one who could really speak in any of the languages of India with which he is acquainted (Nov. 14, 1906).

Many linguists who have studied the tongues of Pentecostals and Charismatics have come to the same conclusion. William J. Samarin, professor of linguistics at the University of Toronto, summarized his research as follows:

Over a period of five years I have taken part in meetings in Italy, Holland, Jamaica, Canada, and the United States. I have observed old-fashioned Pentecostals and neo-Pentecostals; I have been in small meetings at private homes as well as in mammoth public meetings; I have seen such different cultural settings as are found among the Puerto Ricans of the Bronx, the snake handlers of the Appalachians ... Russian Molakans in Los Angeles. ... It is extremely doubtful that the alleged cases of xenoglossia [languages] among charismatics are real. Any time one attempts to verify them he finds that the stories have been greatly distorted or that the âwitnesses turn out to be incompetent or unreliable from a linguistic point of view. ... GLOSSOLALIA IS INDEED LIKE LANGUAGE IN SOME WAYS, BUT THIS IS ONLY BECAUSE THE SPEAKER (UNCONSCIOUSLY) WANTS IT TO BE LIKE LANGUAGE. YET IN SPITE OF SUPERFICIAL SIMILARITIES, GLOSSOLALIA IS FUNDAMENTALLY NOT LANGUAGE (Samarin, Tongues of Men and Angels, 1972, pp. xii, 112, 113, 227).

The Gospel Message, published in Kansas City, in October 1906, contained the following testimony:

We were acquainted with Mr. Chas. Parham many years ago, and when he visited Kansas City with his workers after he had made his statements regarding the wonderful blessing that had come to his school in Topeka, we invited him to visit us with his followers and tell us about this experience. They accordingly came, and before the meeting we told him that there were those present that could speak Spanish, German, Arabic, and Swedish, and that if any of his people could speak in other tongues, we would be glad to hear them in one or more of these: they had, however, no liberty that night but told something of their past experience, and their strange writings which had been reported as the work of the Holy Spirit. When, however, we asked Mr. Parham pointedly and publicly if he knew certainly whether these writings were of the Holy Spirit, or just scribblings, he candidly said he did not know, but that he was having them, or would have them, investigated, but a report of such investigation has never reached usâ (reprinted from Larry Martin, Skeptics and Scoffers, pp. 47-48).

This reminds us that every time someone attempts to test Pentecostal tongues or healings or other signs and wonders objectively, they prove to be either completely bogus or strangely illusive. The most amazing signs and wonders always happen some place far away or long ago and are otherwise not verifiable.

In 2002 I visited the Kansas State Research Library in Topeka and got a photo of the building where Parham had his Bible School (which was destroyed by a fire in December 1901). I also found some old newspaper articles and other documents about Parham's school.

Two articles give the testimony of S.J. Riggins, a student who left the school, claiming that the other students were merely speaking âœgibberish.

I believe the whole of them are crazy, said Mr. Riggins to a Capital reporter. I never saw anything like it. They were racing about the room talking and gesticulating and using this strange and senseless language which they claim is the word from the Most High. ... I do not believe their senseless jargon means anything. I am trying to be an earnest Christian. ... When I left the congregation today, I told why I did so, with all the earnestness at my command. ... Mr. Riggins said that some of Miss Auswin's [Ozman's] writing, which she claimed to be inspired, was submitted to a Chinaman here in Topeka with the honest intention of seeing if he could translate it. The Celestial threw up his hand and said: Me no understand. Takee to Jap. Mr. Riggins told this story without a suspicion of levity and if he put any humor in it at the last it was done unconsciously, for he seemed terribly in earnest (Topeka Daily Capital, Jan. 6, 1901).

They began to claim the gift of tongues and the gift of discernment, and each talked a different kind of gibberish, claiming to be inspired by God, and that they talked one of the foreign languages. ... I was not under the influence, and could see that the students of the school had been led to this extreme through their fanaticism, and finally decided to leave the school. Accordingly last Saturday morning I went away, but before going, I called the inmates of the building together and explained to them my reasons for leaving. I told them they were under the influence of the evil one, and that the best thing they could do would be to leave the school, as I was doing. They all laughed at me, and I left the school, and do not intend to return....

About fifteen members of the colony have now been given the gift of tongues and when a State Journal reporter called at the school this morning each of the favored ones were called up and spoke a few sentences in strange and unnatural way outlandish words which they neither know the meaning of nor the language to which they belonged. ... It is a peculiar sight to see a whole room full of the men and women of the school sitting around, occasionally breaking out with brief outbursts of talk in one of the many languages which they claim to speak, and writing the quaint and indistinguishable hieroglyphics which they believe to be the characters for words in the Syrian, Chinese, Japanese, Arabic and other languages (Topeka State Journal, Jan. 7, 1901).

We are convinced that Riggins was correct in his assessment that Parham and his students were speaking gibberish and practicing fanaticism under the influence of the evil one.

Consider this description by Parham of what his students were doing the day after Ozman began her tongues-speaking career:

The next day I went down town and upon my return found ALL THE STUDENTS SITTING ON THE FLOOR TALKING IN UNKNOWN TONGUES, NO TWO TALKING THE SAME LANGUAGE, AND NO ONE UNDERSTANDING HIS OR HER NEIGHBOR'S SPEECH (Topeka Mail and Breeze, Feb. 22, 1901).

This is strictly contrary to the Bible's instruction about the use of tongues. The Bethel Bible School tongues in January 1901 was confusion, which the Bible says is not of God (1 Cor. 14:33). The Bible says that tongues are not to be used unless they are interpreted and even then, the gift is to be exercised by only one speaker at a time (1 Cor. 14:23-28). Further, women are not to speak (1 Cor. 14:34).

Parham claimed that Ozman was unable to speak in English for three days after her initial tongues experience. Her own testimony was that âœmany times we could only talk in other tongues (Martin, The Topeka Outpouring of 1901, p. 88).

To the contrary, the Bible says a genuine prophet or tongues-speaker is in control of himself. And the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophetsâ (1 Cor. 14:32). Ozman's uncontrollable tongues were not of God.

The lack of control over the tongues was also described by Lillian Thistlethwaite, another student at Parham's Bible school.

My tongue began to get thick and great floods of laughter came into my heart. I could no longer think words of praise, for my mind was sealed, but my mouth was filled with a rush of words I didn't understand. I tried not to laugh for I feared to grieve the Spirit. I tried to praise Him in English but could not, so I just let the praise come as it would in the new language... (Martin, The Topeka Outpouring, p. 61).

This is contrary to what we see in the book of Acts and the Epistles.

As we have seen in the previously quoted newspaper accounts, Parham's students not only claimed to speak in tongues but also to write in them. They claimed these writings were foreign languages, such as Chinese, but when they were examined by knowledgeable people, they were found to be mere indecipherable scratchings (Goff, p. 76). The Topeka Daily Capital printed an example of Ozman's inspired writings, and it can still be seen in the Kansas State Research Library. It was nothing more than childish scratchings. The people were deluded, plain and simple. The press called the writings quaint and indistinguishable hieroglyphics (Goff, p. 80).

A reporter for the Topeka State Journal observed Agnes Ozman when she was allegedly writing by inspiration:

Miss Ozman sat at a desk writing some letters which were to be posted that morning. Shortly after finishing the letters she sat down to write again and immediately announced that her hands utterly refused to write the characters of the English language. And with her hands unconsciously formed the characters of some language, but she was not able to state which. She did not interpret the marks. IN WRITING THE CHARACTERS, THE MUSCLES OF MISS OZMAN'S HANDS SEEM TO CONTRACT AND SHE MADE THE MARKS IN A SPASMODIC FASHION, HER HAND RATHER JERKING BACK AND FORTH to make the scrawls (Hindoo and Zulu Both Are Represented at Bethel School, Topeka State Journal, Jan. 9, 1901).

This is the same phenomenon that occurs with New Age automatic writing, which is clearly demonic. There is not a hint of such a thing in the New Testament Scriptures.

The early Pentecostals thought they would be able to preach in foreign languages through the gift of tongues. Parham is quoted as follows in a newspaper article from that day:

It is a wonderful work, coming as it does on the eve of the twentieth century. We have for long believed that the power of the Lord would be manifested in our midst, and that power would be given us to speak other languages, and that the time will come when we will be sent to go into all the nations and preach the gospel, and that THE LORD WILL GIVE US THE POWER OF SPEECH TO TALK TO THE PEOPLE OF THE VARIOUS NATIONS WITHOUT HAVING TO STUDY THEM IN SCHOOLSâ (Topeka State Journal, Jan. 7, 1901).

We have received several messages to go into all the world and preach the gospel, and we must obey the command. A PART OF OUR LABOR WILL BE TO TEACH THE CHURCHES THE USELESSNESS OF SPENDING YEARS OF TIME PREPARING MISSIONARIES FOR WORK IN FOREIGN LANDS WHEN ALL THEY HAVE TO DO IS TO ASK GOD for power and then have faith that the power will comeâ (Parham, quoted in Kansas City Times, Jan. 27, 1901).

As it turned out, they were deceived in this as they were in everything else.

Alfred Garr and his wife went to India expecting to speak in supernatural languages, but they quickly learned that it was a delusion. May Law and Rosa Pittman went to Japan expecting to preach in Japanese but when they found that no one could understand their tongues they moved on to Hong Kong, thinking that they must have the gift of Chinese instead, but they were no more successful there. T.J. McIntosh was the first Pentecostal missionary to Macau, and though he fully expected to speak fluent Chinese his hopes were soon dashed.

Numerous other Pentecostal missionaries went abroad believing they had the miraculous ability to speak in the languages of those to whom they were sent. These Pentecostal claims were well known at the time. S.C. Todd of the Bible Missionary Society investigated eighteen Pentecostals who went to Japan, China, and India expecting to preach to the natives in those countries in their own tongue, and found that by their own admission in no single instance have [they] been able to do so. AS THESE AND OTHER MISSIONARIES RETURNED IN DISAPPOINTMENT AND FAILURE, PENTECOSTALS WERE COMPELLED TO RETHINK THEIR ORIGINAL VIEW OF SPEAKING IN TONGUESâ (Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism).

Parham's Bible school in Kansas closed down within months and he moved to Texas to establish churches. He also started a new Bible school in Houston.

The new movement was called THE APOSTOLIC FAITH, and it grew quickly and split into many factions. The Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements notes that Parham's contributions to Pentecostalism included the particularly acute level of latter rain millenarianism. Parham's first book was titled Kol Kare Bomidbar, which is Hebrew for A Voice Crying in the Wilderness. He considered himself a latter days John the Baptist, announcing a new dispensation of the Spirit. He gave himself the title Projector of the Apostolic Faith. When one of Parham's co-evangelists, Lilian Thistlethwaite, wrote an account of the Topeka, Kansas, revival, she entitled it The Wonderful History of the Latter Rain.

In the summer of 1907 Parham was arrested in San Antonio, Texas, on a charge of sodomy. The charge was dropped by the authorities without comment and Parham refused to explain. Marred by scandal, he spent the final two decades of his life alienated from the bulk of the movement he had begun. ... At the time of Parham's death in 1929, he was almost unknown among the developing second generation of the Pentecostal denominations. Yet to no one individual did the movement owe a greater debt (The Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements).

Because of the charge of sodomy, W.F. Carothers and Howard Goss disfellowshipped Parham from the Apostolic Faith organization he had founded (Larry Martin, The Life and Ministry of William J. Seymour, p. 271).

When Parham visited Zion City after this and tried to raise a following there, Wilbur Glenn Voliva put up a billboard warning the inhabitants of the city as follows:

You know that this city is the private headquarters of the Christian Catholic Apostolic Church, and a place of residence for its officers and members. Those who break in here and attempt to hold meetings of any kind, especially to run a disgraceful monkey-house, are nothing but thieves and thugs. Old Parham from Sodom made fools and monkeys out of you. Either repent of your idiotic performances, and line up for God and Zion, or pack up your stuff and get out of here, and establish a zoo somewhere else. W.G. Voliva.

In 1908 Parham raised funds to travel to the Holy Land on an archaeological expedition to search for the lost Ark of the Covenant. He told the press that he had information about its location and that finding the Ark would fit into the end-times scheme. By December he announced that he had sufficient funds and traveled to New York, allegedly to begin his journey to Jerusalem. He never purchased a ticket to the Middle East and returned home dejectedly in January 1909, claiming he was robbed after arriving in New York.

WILLIAM SEYMOUR AND THE AZUSA STREET MISSION

One of the students at Parham's Houston Bible school was William J. Seymour (1870-1922), a black evangelist who accepted Parham's doctrine and carried it to Los Angeles, California.

The mission established by Seymour on Azusa Street in Los Angeles in 1906 has become famous as the birthplace of the Pentecostal movement. Meetings were held seven days a week for three years. Visitors attended from around the world, seeking their own âœpersonal Pentecost,â and their testimonies and the preaching of missionaries sent out from the Azusa Street mission created a whirlwind of growth for the burgeoning Pentecostal movement.

Pentecostal historian Vinson Synan observes: The Azusa Street revival is commonly regarded as the beginning of the modern Pentecostal movement. In addition to the ministers who received their Pentecostal experience directly at Azusa Street, thousands of others were influenced indirectly (Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, pp. 105,130).

During 1901 and 1902 Seymour had attended Martin Knapp's God's Bible School and joined the Evening Light Saints in Cincinnati. He adopted the unscriptural doctrine of entire sanctification, believing that two works of grace were required to save and cleanse a man. One first had to be born again through faith in Christ then subsequently sanctified through a second work of grace.

Seymour believed that the true church was being restored in an end-times miracle revival. In 1903 he attended Parham's Bible school in Houston. There he became committed to another false doctrine, that the Christian must subsequently be âœbaptized in the Holy Spirit with the initial evidence of tongues.

In early 1906 Seymour was invited to Los Angeles to pastor a small holiness group which, at the time of the invitation, was pastored by a woman, Julie Hutchins. The group was formed of people that had been disciplined out of the Second Baptist Church for the second blessing sinless perfection heresy.

Upon his arrival in Los Angeles, Seymour preached only a few times before being locked out of the church that had invited him. His doctrine that tongues-speaking was the initial evidence of the baptism of the Holy Spirit was not well received.

Seymour moved his meetings to a private home and then to a former African Methodist Episcopal church building at 312 Azusa Street, and strange things began to happen. The meetings began in April 1906 and lasted more than three years. Large numbers of people visited Azusa Street to seek their own Pentecost, subsequently taking the Pentecostal theology and experience back to their homes.

The meetings began in the mornings and continued for 10 hours and more. There was no order of services and usually no one was leading. Whoever was anointed with the message would stand and deliver it. It might be a man, woman, or child (Larry Martin, The Life and Ministry of William J. Seymour, p. 186).

Seymour rarely preached. Instead, much of the time he put his head down in an empty packing crate that served as the pulpit and prayed. Pastoral oversight was minimum, to say the least.

People sang out at the same time but with completely different syllables, rhythms, and melodies (Ted Olsen, American Pentecost, Christian History, Issue 58, 1998). They called this the Heavenly Choir.â Seymour's wife, Jennie, claimed that she could sing under the power of the Spirit in many languages and even play the piano by divine inspiration (Martin, The True Believers, p. 58).

The services were characterized by much confusion: dancing, jumping up and down, falling, trances, slaying in the spirit, tongues, jerking, hysteria, strange animal noises, holy laughter, spiritual muteness or people trying to speak and unable to do so, etc. The seekers would be seized with a strange spell and commence a jibberish of sounds. Seymour said, Often when God sends a blessed wave upon us, we all may speak in tongues for awhile... (Martin, p. 188). A Los Angeles Times reporter observed that the participants work themselves into a state of mad excitement in their peculiar zeal. A very sympathetic biographer of William Seymour admits that at times the meetings would become so boisterous that the police were called (Martin, The Life and Ministry of Seymour, p. 188).

Seymour taught the people to cry out to God and demand sanctification, the baptism with the Holy Ghost, and divine healing (Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, p. 99).

Shaking was a large part of the Azusa experience. The first case of tongues-speaking under Seymour's ministry was by Edward Lee, who was convinced that people shake and speak in tongues when God's power comes upon them after he saw an alleged vision of Peter and John shaking while speaking in tongues (Larry Martin, The Life and Ministry of William J. Seymour, p. 142).

One man shook so violently under Seymourâ™s ministry that an ambulance was called. When the man who was shaking told the doctor, Don't touch me, this is the power of God, the doctor wisely replied, If that is the power of God it is giving you a devil of a shakingâ (Martin, p. 306).

Spirit slaying was also a large part of the Azusa Street meetings. When Seymour laid hands on Edward Lee, he fell to the floor like a dead manâ (Ibid., p. 143).

The first woman to speak in tongues at Azusa, Jennie Moore, first fell to the floor (Ibid., p. 146).

Seymour also fell down like he was dead when he first spoke in tongues (Ibid., p. 148).

At times men would fall all over the house, like an army slain on the battle field...â (Ibid., p. 179).

The same lack of control over the tongues and other phenomena that we have seen at Parham's Bible School in Topeka was evident at Azusa Street. Jennie Moore, who later married William Seymour and eventually became the pastor of the Azusa Street Mission herself, was employed by a wealthy couple as a cook. When she burst out in tongues before her surprised employers, they feared she was going insane, and rightfully so (Martin, The True Believers, p. 112). Later she came under the power and burst out in tongues during a Methodist church service.

Though William Seymour and Charles Parham have been called the co-founders of world Pentecostalism, Parham never accepted the Azusa Street experience as genuine.

When Parham visited the meetings in October 1906, he was shocked by the confusion of the services. He was dismayed by the awful fits and spasmsâ of the holy rollers and hypnotists. He described the Azusa tongues as chattering, jabbering and sputtering, speaking no language at all (Synan, p. 102). The Azusa Street meetings were so wild that Parham condemned them with the term sensational Holy Rollers. He said that the Azusa Street meetings were largely characterized by manifestations of the flesh, spiritualistic controls, and the practice of hypnotism (Sarah Parham, The Life of Charles F. Parham, Joplin, MO: Tri-state Printing, 1930, p. 163). When Parham arrived in Azusa Street in 1906, he began his first sermon by telling the people that God is sick at his stomach because of the things which were occurring at Azusa (Charles Shumway, A Study of the Gift of Tongues, A.B. thesis, University of California, 1914, pp. 178, 179; cited by Goff, Fields White Unto Harvest, p. 131).

According to Parham, two-thirds of the people that professed Pentecostalism in his day were either hypnotized or spook driven (Sarah Parham, Life of Charles Parham, p. 164).

Parham never changed his opinion. To the end of his life, he denounced Azusa Street as a case of spiritual power prostituted. Thus the father of Pentecostalism roundly rejected the Azusa Street meetings as phony, manipulated, and demonic!

Though there were many reports about healing and financial miracles at Azusa, the bank eventually foreclosed on the church's property and Seymour died young at 52 years old and was in poor health for a long before that. A few months before his death Seymour was described as worn, tired, and decrepit (John Matthews, Speaking in Tongues, 1925, p. 14).

More than 30,000 attended the centennial celebrations of the Azusa Street Mission in Los Angeles in April 2006.